Disability Law Lowdown
Disability Law Lowdown
Main | Current Episode | Past Shows | Subscribe | Feedback

== News ==

For more information or to provide your feedback, please use the comment form.

== Partners ==

ADA Center
Rocky Mountain ADA Center Logo
Rocky Mountain
ADA Center
Great Lakes ADA Center Logo
Great Lakes
ADA Center


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial - No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License

Show 62 __ Transportation

Host Lex Frieden talks with Marilyn Golden about accessible transportation.

You're listening to the Disability Law Lowdown Podcast, show number 62.

Lex Frieden: This is the Disability Law Lowdown podcast with Lex Frieden, your host. And we have a really special guest today, an old friend of mine, a great person and advocate and one of the historical figures in the fight for disability rights by people with disabilities. She is Marilyn Golden, Marilyn, welcome to the disability law lowdown pod cast.

Marilyn Golden: Thank you, so much Lex.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn, you know, I recall sitting around a table with you and Bob Casca and another guy name Bob Gayer, and some other advocates in Houston many decades ago. And at that point in time there weren’t any laws protecting people with disabilities from discrimination. I guess the 73 rehabilitation act had passed and there was a title five, but, as I recall there weren’t even regulations at the time we had our first meeting and started to talk about what needed to done. Do you recall those days?

Marilyn Golden: I very much recall them, things were really just going to shaping a period, we had the Individual with Disability Education Act, etcetera, but, you’re right, we really didn’t have the ADA or extensive regulations.

Lex Frieden: Now you’ve probably done more traveling and more training than anybody. I mean, honestly Marilyn I find you in cities all over the United States and now all over the world traveling and I don’t know, I mean, you always seem to go back to Berkeley, is there a particular reason for that?

Marilyn Golden: Well, I made my home out here after, you know, I was raised in Texas, I feel a special connection with Iowa or you based on that. And that we have in Texas, but, came to California after that, and really have gotten involved in the kind of movement building that’s going on here. I went to work at the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund or DREDF in 1988 where a national law and policy center on disability civil rights, with offices in Washington DC and in Berkeley. And we have done a lot of work on the development passage and now implementation and really defending the ADA and the rights of people with disabilities under the United States of disabilities act. I got to be in D.C working for DREDF while the ADA was going through the passage process and since then work on the regulations and as you mentioned done a lot of training on the ADA really focusing on the areas of transportation and policy on architectural barriers, but, also looking at the whole law, as a whole as well.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn, long time ago you worked a little bit on employment related regulations and did some training in that area, but, you’ve sort of become an elite specialist on transportation issues, is that simply because there is nobody else, and you have to do it, or is that your principal interest, or how did you get so focused?

Marilyn Golden: Let’s call it my favorite subject.

Lex Frieden: What made it so?

Marilyn Golden: We were doing a lot of things in California that had best stayed in national implications; one of them was working with ADAPT, when they came to San Francisco in 1987 to protest against the policies of the American Public Transit Association, which at that time did not support a federal requirement for accessible busses. And working on that, on those projects got me further on transportation. And then when the ADA came around in 1988 and 89 and 1990 really just jumped in further to it and then to more the details of the development and just have really enjoyed staying up to date with all that policy, because especially in the last decade, because there has been a huge amount of additional information which is not well known in the disability community or in the transit industry.

Information from the Department of Transportation in the form of DOT guidance, and also DOT’s subpart, which is the Federal Transit Administration, which is one of the model administrations of DOT. FTA not only enforces the ADA public transit requirements, but, it also has done a number of compliance reviews and also responded to administrative complaints putting out letters of finding which have quite a few enforcement determinations saying what transit agencies should be doing to comply with the ADA. And they’ve reached a lot of very interesting conclusions that are not well known by either the disability of transit communities and so to accomplish a number of goals including to bring that information more in to the public eye.

DREDF was fortunate to receive funding from the Federal Transit Administration. Approximately two years ago to develop a series of documents with our co-author TranSystems Corporation to provide technical assistance on the ADA. And there are seven such documents they are called the topic guides on ADA transportation. They bring together the basic trust of the ADA requirements explaining the requirements that also addressing all the DOT and FTA guidance and enforcement determinations as well as best practices. And there is a couple of them on fixed route and there is five of them on ADA Paratransit. They are available at on the DREDF website at www.dredf.org...

Lex Frieden: DREDF is spelled D-R-E-D-F.

Marilyn Golden: F is in frank. So www.dredf.org/ada/tg/, so…

Lex Frieden: I’ve been there, I’ve seen them, they are fabulous, I’m sure people will be making note of the website. But, Marilyn, I’m curious the reviews that you referenced would have been done by the FTA and then by other groups as well, what is the, you know, what kind of grades do the transit agencies get?

Marilyn Golden: It really varies, there are some that have done well, and there are some that have had a lot of problems. So, the most interesting thing to ask about those enforcement determinations are, what they say transit agencies should be doing to implement the ADA, and it’s really hard to get in to what the content of that is without really knowing what the ADA says.

Lex Frieden: So I mean, the lawyers at FTA are essentially making a judgment about certain agencies and they make observations about what they are not doing that should be done, and then provide guidance that are based on the legislative history and on the rules that have come subsequent to the ADA?

Marilyn Golden: Yes, essentially so. They would probably not call it guidance because that has a specific legal meaning to the department. But, they do light up these compliance reviews and they are on the FTA’s website, actually the topic guides are also in the FTA’s website. The FTA has a terrific ADA website, and it is www.fta.dot.gov/ada. And the compliance reviews can be found there, they are very detailed, and what we did when we developed the topic guides is look at that material depth, take the parts that we think were the most crucial arms and main topics that people have, we think needed more information about, and develop them in a way where it’s not so laborious to go through the long the compliance reviews. But, rather the topic guides are organized in a way that you can use the table of contents and they are very navigable and applicable and back and forth from sources to footnotes and everything. And you can really just go in, get a little bit of content and comeback out. It’s easy to find the subject that you want. And so that’s one of the biggest reasons that we’re happy people are using them and we’re happy to talk about that material today.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn, the guides provide the review process and the transit topic guides that you’ve done provide direction to transit agencies, those agencies generally, I mean, are open for this kind of technical assistance?

Marilyn Golden: It really varies, some are very much so, others may not be, and in that case, people with disabilities may need to really engage in advocacy to utilize everything we know including the topic guides to bring that information to the transit agencies.

Lex Frieden: I mean, that sort of interesting to me the culture of transit and I have worked with transit agencies as a reviewer for the some of the reports that have been done including one of yours, and I have done some work with few transit agencies in Iowa and in Texas and Oklahoma, and you know, I find that to be a kind of a culture, but, the interesting thing to me is it that, you know, we used to call it an old boy’s network now. I think it’s an old boys and girls network of men and women whose life has been, total experience has been in managing these sometimes complex systems of services that use public streets and public vehicles and so on, it’s not as easier job as one might think I believe, but, I’ve also been interested to find that some agencies have an orientation towards improvement that others seem to want to be defensive about.

Marilyn Golden: Well, possibly like covered remedies everywhere.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn that some agencies have been sued and the lawsuits seem to have compelled them to improve what they do?

Marilyn Golden: Most of the time…

Lex Frieden: And I mean, that are you, I don’t think based on my knowledge of what you’ve done, you wouldn’t advocate is that to be the principal strategy for improving. I mean your approach would be for advocates to get engaged with their local agencies and begin to participate in planning meetings, board meetings, advisory committee meetings and so on, correct?

Marilyn Golden: DREDF really looks at the whole range of advocacy the things you talked, I mean, the things you talked about are certainly where people start. And if change doesn’t come advocates have successfully used more assertive strategies like civil disobedience and protest, they’ve also used you know, filed complaints with federal agencies which is a very accessible tactic that people can use, and they’ve also used litigation gone to the court. So you know, it really depends on the situation, but, we encourage a whole range of strategies just depending on what, you know, what’s appropriate in each local area.

Lex Frieden: Now Marilyn based on the work that you’ve done in the topic guides that you’ve presented and other reviews, are there certain areas where advocates need to be more focused than others, or do they need to know the whole range and realize the agencies have to be accountable throughout the range, or other areas where we can just focus on, I mean, I, in my experience here in Texas there are some, a lot of things they just do right kind of normally, and there are some things they have more difficulty with.

Marilyn Golden: Again, it varies so much. I think generally the disability community will have a sense, if they use the transit system where the problems are. Some people are focused on the fixed route system, some the paratransit systems, some both, of course, the ADA also includes privately funded transit, which means the Graham buses and the taxies. That I think we’re focusing on public transit today the buses the trains and paratransit. I can tell you what we did the topic guides on, and those are some of the big areas, but, not the only ones, the topic guides cover a vehicle maintenance which means to the lift work, to the ramps work, to buses pass people by, etcetera. That’s one we also have one on stop announcements on the bus and train, and then five on paratransit, the eligibility for ADA paratransit, origin to destination service in ADA paratransit, telephone hold time in ADA paratransit, on-time performance in ADA paratransit, no-shows in ADA paratransit, I think I got all seven.

Lex Frieden: You named seven and they are all important ones. What advise can you give people in terms of working through the process using the technical assistance materials that are available?

Marilyn Golden: Well, the big thing is knowing what the ADA does and doesn’t require. Sometimes people, you know, initially are upset over a problem and they don’t realize that the ADA may not require the particular thing they are concerned about, so we encourage people to get, you know, some grounding in what the law says, it doesn’t have to be, you know, legal lecture, it can be an overview like, you know, we’re intending to do today.

And you know, look at the topic guides in the areas you are concerned about learn what the requirements are, what transit agencies have to be doing, also what are best practices they should be doing and then to work through those advocacy techniques starting with meetings and letters and other sort of standard for steps and perhaps pushing harder if those don’t work.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn the process is pretty straightforward, but, I find more and more fewer and fewer people who are willing to come out for meetings and get engaged at a level that we were before ADA is that just my own experience here, or do you see that?

Marilyn Golden: I hope that’s not the case across the country, like everything it varies a lot from place to place, but, in many places I think they are really is a young corduroy of activists and advocates running independent living centers and other organizations. There is a lot more law centers in different states than they were before. I mean, the ADA has seen accused burgeoning of disability rights advocacy. So I certainly hope to see a lot, you know, as much or more activity as we used to have. I don’t know if that’s true everywhere, and I know that in different parts of the country people have a really different experience and whether they can find, you compatriots to fight the good fight.

Lex Frieden: Well, part of the issue I think is how bad people feel things are? And in communities where things are really rotten, I think more people are angry and frustrated and willing to get involved in communities that don’t experience so much frustration where the systems seem to be working, I think it’s harder to get people excited about it.

Marilyn Golden: Yeah, that may be really true.

Lex Frieden: And you’ve mentioned independent living centers, do they continue to play an important role in advocacy orientation?

Marilyn Golden: Oh, I think so. They are often the organization in a local that is among the most active, there is a lot of other players too these days, and so it really depends on where you are, but, I think independent living centers are very key.

Lex Frieden: And I mean people to get educated obviously can use the Internet, they can Google, they can go to your topic guides, they can go to FTA website, they can get engaged with an independent living centre call and say I want to be involved and do you have a committee on transportation, and they should go directly to the agencies involved, because those agencies are compelled by the law to reach out and include people in their planning and their advisory process.

Marilyn Golden: All good points, it’s also good to look for allies, you know, we’ve always have focused on across disability approach. And I think some of the most successful local and state coalitions are those that bring together people with different kinds of disabilities. You know people with physical disabilities and people who are visually impaired might be among the most frequent users of ADA paratransit for example along with people with cognitive and developmental disabilities. There is lot, there is, you know, everyone, you know, hopefully, just because everyone is trying to use public transit, the fixed route system then we have people with all kinds of different disabilities that are affected by problems in that system. So, looking to many other disability organizations not only your own there is another secret of success.

Lex Frieden: Well, that’s a good, they are really good point, and I think people do fail if you have a mobility impairment that is not century related sometimes you forget that people with century impairments are affected or even people with psychiatric impairments are affected by these policies and should have appropriate accommodations made. Marilyn, you mentioned obviously paratransit in the context of the local mass transit services. And one of the arguments that we have heard more and more recently is that the agencies don’t have enough money to provide the necessary resources to meet the demand in the community, what can you say about that?

Marilyn Golden: Funding is very key there are many things that transit agencies can do without extensive additional funding however, and it all really comes back to, you know, knowing what the ADA requires, and knowing what are the best practices to implement it are.

Lex Frieden: But, one of the biggest complaints that people have about any kind of transit system is that they have to wait too long for the bus, or they have to wait too long for the paratransit car or they have to be on the road too long from point of entry to point of destination and the transit agencies will tell you they could do a far better job if they have twice the numbers of buses, twice the number of paratransit. And that’s the only solution to some of this, now acknowledge that there are probably efficiencies they can gain by operating their systems in a certain way the scheduling issues particularly with paratransit, but, when it comes to standing on a bus stop and waiting on a bus, if the, you know, if the wait is 30 minutes for the next bus and the temperature as it is in Houston today is more than a 100 degrees that seems unreasonable.

Marilyn Golden: I think mass transit as a whole really needs to be better funded in this country. And really as DREDF has reported in another project from the National Council on Disability called which of course you led for many years this report was called the current state of transportation for people with disabilities in the United States. We talked about how the lion share of funding for decades has gone to highways and auto travel and public transit comes up short in our country. What the ADA does is provides people with disabilities a level playing field in terms of the right to access whatever public transit is available whether it’s down to full or whether it’s meager. And the ADA of course can ensure that that’s provided automatically, but, what the ADA does do is layout the rights people have to that and provides people tools to fight for that. And if you like we can go ahead and look at what some of those rules are.

Lex Frieden: Yeah, please do.

Marilyn Golden: We want to start with some definitions. When we say fixed route system we mean a system that operates along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule, where you don’t have to do anything to some in the vehicle. Let me talk about demand response service, we mean a vehicle is dispatched or routed in response to a rider’s potential request. And one of the most common examples of that is taxis. When we, well, I want to focus specifically on the area of paratransit. The ADA requires public agencies that operate a fixed route bus or trains system to ensure the paratransit is provided to people with disabilities who cannot use the fixed route system, and that is the basic requirement. Paratransit eligibility is really for people who can’t use the bus or train due to their disability, whether it’s all the time, or whether it’s just some of the trips that they take.

Of course, the ADA also entitles any eligible paratransit rider to take a companion with them. And if they need an attendant to come with them as well, that attendant will not count against the one companion. The ADA makes six basic service criteria mandatory for transit agencies. The first one is service area, and that guarantees people with disabilities will be able to use paratransit in an area that matters the fixed route for the bus, its three quarter mile wide corridors on each side of the fixed route and for the train it’s circles with three quarter mile radius. The rest of the transit agencies service areas are not required to be in the paratransit service area, it’s allowed to be limited to those corridors.

The second service criteria is response time and it says that riders are entitled to a ride at any day, after a call they make to arrange a ride any time the previous day. So it’s next day service that the ADA requires, it doesn’t require same day service. So it’s not, but, it also doesn’t allow a transit agency to take a full 24 hours, if you are eligible and you call in at four o’clock on a Wednesday you can get a ride at 8 AM on a Thursday. The third service criteria, well, I should also say the transit agencies may negotiate pick up times with the rider, but, can’t require him or her, the schedule trip to begin more than an hour before or after the individual’s desire departure time. And one of the FTA determinations that we talk about in the topic guides is that transit agencies are also required to take a riders appointment time in to account, not just when they want to be picked up, but, when they need to arrive.

The third service criterion is fares; fares may not exceed twice the full fixed route fare, not the discounted fare, but, the full fixed route fare, service criterion number four no trip purpose restrictions, transit agencies are not allowed to restrict or prioritize based on where they are going. This is something that happened a lot before the ADA, and thanks to the ADA has been; as far as, I know largely unheard of transit agencies pretty much know that they can really restrict you based on where you are going as long as it’s in the service area. The fifth service criterion hours of day, hours and days of service is the paratransit must be available throughout the same hours and days as the fixed route service. So, if some bus route go to 5 PM at night the paratransit in those corridors must go to 5 PM as well, if there is other bus routes in the same city that go to 9 PM at night then the paratransit in those corridors must also go to 9 PM.

The sixth service criterion is the most complicated and certainly one of the most important, it says that transit agencies may not limit the availabilities of paratransit service by restricting the number of trips an eligible rider can take by having any waiting list for the service, or most important by having any operational pattern or practice that significantly limits the availability of service, including, but, not limited to substantial numbers of significantly untimely pick ups that is late pickups, untimely arrivals, that is late drop offs, substantial numbers of trip denials or missed trips or substantial numbers of trips with excessive lengths. That list was illustrative, it’s not exhaustive, those aren’t the only items on the list, they are just examples. And FTA has also found I mentioned arrivals and another thing FTA has addressed, whether there can be a capacity constraint is if people have to wait too long on the phone when they are, you know, overtime, time and time again, wait an unduly long period of time to get in on the phone to make a paratransit reservation.

We are also asked a lot in those context about subscription service, which is where paratransit riders can reserve rides for a certain time every week or every day, and just get picked up every day or several times a week, rather than having to call each day for each days reservation and subscription service, you make a global reservation, and you are picked up on a schedule everyday or several times a week whatever your schedule is. The ADA has said that there I should say the ADA regulation say, that subscription service may not absorb more than 50% of the number of trips available at a given time of day unless and it’s an important unless there is non-subscription capacity left over which basically means there is no capacity constraints. A lot of transit agencies have been rigid, because I think they misunderstand this rule and they stop at 50% of their capacity with subscription service when, in fact, that rule only applies if there are not more capacity meaning, if they are trip denials. So if there are no trip denials then transit agencies may exceed the 50%, in fact, may use 80, 90 you know, whatever percentage they wish have their capacity on subscription service as long as there aren’t denials to get non-subscription trips.

Lex Frieden: Well, that’s interesting. Marilyn one other point that you’ve made which I find to be difficult to explain to people has to do with the like to use paratransit vis-à-vis the fixed route system. So in other words, I believed there are a lot of people who live within that corridor, who are relatively close and I say relatively at least with in the corridor close to a bus stop, some whose bus stop is within a block of their residence, who prefer to and continue to use paratransit. Now I know that there are some provisions that may enable that, can you talk about that?

Marilyn Golden: Well, I mentioned eligibility very briefly at the beginning, only briefly because there are so much to say about the ADA that I wanted to give emphasis to the other requirements as well. But, to look at eligibility for a minute the ADA paratransit is really intended for people who can’t use the fixed route service the bus or train. Now you may be very close to a bus stop, but, you still can’t get there on your own for whatever reason.

It may be that you have a visual impairment and you don’t have mobility training to navigate obstructions along that block. There may be constructions going on or there may be other obstacles that may be very steep to get there. So you may be very legitimately entitled to paratransit. It could also be that you could get there easily, but, you can’t get from your destination bus stop to your destination so easily, because that’s more blocks and so and more obstacles. So you may have no outbound barriers, but, you have barriers at the destination. And any of these circumstance that I should say that preclude you from making the trip due to disability, if that’s true you are fully entitled to paratransit, it’s also true that some people prefer to use paratransit even though perhaps they could use the fixed route system. There is a lot of circumstances here that for I’m not saying all ours, I mean, there may be other reasons why people who have hesitate to use it, and those things may or may not be legitimately entitling under the ADA…

Lex Frieden: Well, I mean I can give you example I used to while ago the sitting outside waiting for a fixed route bus for 30 seconds in a 100 degree heat, if you are quadriplegic spinal cord injured you cannot physically tolerate that and that would be a perfect reason to use paratransit as an alternative.

Marilyn Golden: Yes, that’s a good example of an environmental obstacle that some people due to their disabilities really can’t overcome without, you know, and still using fixed route system.

Lex Frieden: One of the other issues I find in some of the consultations we’ve done are that the riders sometimes are not expressive enough, they don’t articulate very well their issues they actually get defensive when they are trying to schedule a trip or even to determine their eligibility and they don’t provide as much information as necessary, if they would provide more information and not be quite as defensive about why they need assistance, sometimes they might be better off, but, I suppose that can work either way.

Marilyn Golden: I think you’re right, I think you’re right absolutely right. And we have a few points that actually address that in the last section I was going to mention which is the eligibility determination process should I go ahead and…?

Lex Frieden: Yeah, go ahead, please.

Marilyn Golden: Transit agencies have to establish a process for determining paratransit eligibility that is accessible, they may not charge any fee for eligibility, in even an indirect fee, they must complete the eligibility determination process within 21 days or the individual can ride paratransit at that point until the transit agency completes the process and may find them not eligible. Visitors to a city can use the paratransit system without going through the basic more elaborate eligibility determination process. A visitor is anyone who doesn’t live in the jurisdiction that’s served by the transit agency, and if visitors present documentation that their ADA paratransit eligible elsewhere they must be served, if they don’t have documentation that they are eligible elsewhere the transit agency is allowed to require documentation only of their place of residence and of their disability if the disability is not apparent and then they need to be served.

And that visitor eligibility is limited to 21 days in a calendar year, because by that point the individual could have applied for a local eligibility and those 21 days can be parceled out in multiple trips to the local. So the other point I wanted to mention is that if your eligibility is denied by this process or limited by it say through traditional eligibility that you can only ride at some of the time. An applicant may appeal that decision the appeals process have to give you, then an opportunity to be heard to present information and arguments the final decisions has to be made by someone uninvolved with the initial decision and they have to provide very specific written result of the appeal just as the initial eligibility result has to be detailed specific and in writing.

And the other big piece I wanted to mention is that transit agencies are allowed to establish an administrative process to suspend riders for a reasonable period of time from the provision of paratransit if they have a pattern or practice of missing schedule trips, or you know, no shows, no showing for those trips. However, the transit agencies cannot base a suspension on any trips missed by the individual that were beyond his or her control including trips missed due to transit agency error. Transit agencies have to notify the individual in writing saying specifically what the basis is for the proposed suspension and individuals are allowed to appeal a suspension by the same process as I mentioned earlier, the appeal for eligibility is also available for no show suspensions. And the sanction the suspension is stayed pending the outcome of the appeal, there is a lot more to say about no shows, but, those are the basics and there is more information in the topic guides.

Lex Frieden: But, in reality I mean, I have to believe that people who are using these services need them and they want them and they don’t want to use them and abuse them the detriment of other riders. In other words, I find it sometimes disrespectable to learn about people who constantly make appointments and then miss them and they don’t cancel they could very easily cancel, but, they choose not to. That means that somebody else who needed a ride at that time has left out and I just find that unconscionable.

Marilyn Golden: I think that happens sometimes we also hear complaints from riders that the no show process was abused by the transit agency and this can happen as well, if no shows are being levied on people for no shows that would be under control. Another problem sometimes is transit agencies charging fees for no shows that’s not legal under the ADA even though it is common. If you don’t take a trip you don’t have to pay for it. It is legal if transit agencies can legitimately suspend someone for, you know, multiple no shows, the topic guides talks more about sort of how many and so forth. Sometimes instead of a suspension, a transit agency will charge a mandatory fee and that’s not legal either, transit agencies are allowed to offer that the individual can pay a fee instead of a suspension and if the individual chooses to do that, that’s fine, but, the fees may not be mandatory. And with that I actually have reached the end of my available time. We would love to look at this again in more depth sometime. I really appreciate Lex, the opportunity to work with you and talk with you today and with the DBTAC, which we really appreciate providing these pod casts and webinars and all the other educational programs that you have.

Lex Frieden: Marilyn, you are there to spend the time with us today, and we will visit with you some more, will wait and get some feedback from the audience about this presentation and if people feel like they are sending us an email letting us know what they’d like to learn more about Marilyn we can focus on that next time. So thank you very much, have a great day there in, and I guess you are in Berkeley, right?

Marilyn Golden: Yes.

Lex Frieden: Have a great day. And everybody who is listening, I hope you will have a great day as well. This is Lex Frieden.

The Disability Law Lowdown is brought to you by the Disability Business Technical Assistance Centers, which are a network of ADA centers that provide training, technical assistance and materials on the ADA and other disability-related laws. Funding for the centers is provided by a grant from NIDRR, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Visit our website, DisabilityLawLowdown.com to listen to past shows or read the transcript of this and past shows. You can also subscribe to the Disability Law Lowdown at our web site or on iTunes.

The Southwest and Rocky Mountain ADA Centers are part of a program of Independent Living Research Utilization at TIRR - Memorial Hermann in Houston, Texas, and is funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. If you have questions about disability law or would like to request materials or training, please call 1-800-949-4232. This podcast is protected by the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivative-Works 2.5 License. For more information and transcripts, visit www.ada-podcast.com.

Funding for the ADA Technical Assistance Program comes from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) within the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (OSERS), U.S. Department of Education (ED). However, the contents of this site do not necessarily represent the policy of ED nor you should any assume endorsement by the Federal government.
Website designed and developed by DCRE Labs © 2007-2015. Use implies acceptance of the Terms of Use